Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Aalto University Finland produces large-area thermoelectric nanostructures by ALD

Here is an interesting ALD energy application by Aalto University researchers published in Nanotechweb and in Nanotechnology (abstract below): Nanotechnology offers a potential route towards improved thermoelectric conversion efficiency. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has also recently become increasingly interesting for thermoelectrics as it allows bottom-up fabrication of complex nanostructures in a parallel fashion. The research on large-area thermoelectric nanostructures carried out at Aalto University and reported in Nanotechnology, paves the way for novel fabrication approaches for energy conversion devices.

Continue reading: http://nanotechweb.org/cws/article/lab/65989 

Large-area thermoelectric high-aspect-ratio nanostructures by atomic layer deposition 

Mikko Ruoho, Taneli Juntunen and Ilkka Tittonen

Published 25 July 2016 • © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd
Nanotechnology, Volume 27, Number 35

Abstract :
We report on the thermoelectric properties of large-area high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. We fabricate the structures by atomic layer deposition of conformal ZnO thin films on track-etched polycarbonate substrate. The resulting structure consists of ZnO tubules which continue through the full thickness of the substrate. The electrical and thermal properties of the structures are studied both in-plane and out-of-plane. They exhibit very low out-of-plane thermal conductivity down to 0.15 W m−1 K−1 while the in-plane sheet resistance of the films was found to be half that of the same film on glass substrate, allowing material-independent doubling of output power of any planar thin-film thermoelectric generator. The wall thickness of the fabricated nanotubes was varied within a range of up to 100 nm. The samples show polycrystalline nature with (002) preferred crystal orientation.

Thursday, August 18, 2016

What Transistors Will Look Like At 5nm by Mark LaPedus

As finFETs run out of steam after 7nm, what comes next? The debate is just beginning.

Chipmakers are currently ramping up 16nm/14nm finFET processes, with 10nm and 7nm just around the corner. The industry also is working on 5nm. TSMC hopes to deliver a 5nm process by 2020. GlobalFoundries, Intel and Samsung are doing R&D for that node.

But 5nm technology presents a multitude of unknowns and challenges. For one thing, the exact timing and specs of 5nm remain cloudy. Then, there are several technical and economic roadblocks. And even if 5nm happens, it’s likely that only a few companies will be able to afford it.

“My current assumption is that 5nm will happen, but it won’t hit high-volume manufacturing until after 2020,” said Bob Johnson, an analyst at Gartner. “If I were to guess, I’d say 2021 to 2022.”
Continue reading at Semiconductor Engineering: http://semiengineering.com/going-to-gate-all-around-fets/ 

I am happy to see that they are using horizontal rather than vertical integration of Nanowires since we have developed an ALE process to realize longitudinal splitting of nanowires at Lund Nano Lab : http://www.blog.baldengineering.com/2016/07/lund-nano-lab-to-present-new-maskless.html

So we could make 10 out of those 5 wires... without Lihorgraphy(!)

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

Transparent Conductive Oxide Nanocrystals Coated with Insulators by ALD

Here is an interesting paper on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) nanocrystals coated by ALD Department of Energy, St. Louis and University of Texas at Austin, USA. As stated in teh paper, it has recently been demonstrated that filling in initially insulating films comprised of TCO nanocrystals with another insulator by ALD dramatically increases the conductivity by many orders of magnitude. 

The researchers report on the mechanism how ALD coating increases conductivity for Al2O3 and HfO2 ALD coating of ZnO TCO nanocrystals. Please check the graphical abstract and linked publication below for full details.

Transparent Conductive Oxide Nanocrystals Coated with Insulators by Atomic Layer Deposition

John Ephraim, Deanna Lanigan, Corey Staller, Delia J. Milliron, and Elijah Thimsen

Chem. Mater., 2016, 28 (15), pp 5549–5553
DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02414


Thin films comprised of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) nanocrystals are attractive for a number of optoelectronic applications. However, it is often observed that the conductivity of such films is very low when they are in contact with air. It has recently been demonstrated, somewhat surprisingly, that filling in initially insulating films comprised of TCO nanocrystals with another insulator by atomic layer deposition (ALD) dramatically increases the conductivity by many orders of magnitude. This work aims to elucidate the mechanism by which the ALD coating increases conductivity. We examined the effect of removing two adsorbed oxygen species (physisorbed molecular water and chemisorbed hydroxide) on sheet resistance and compared this result to the results with thin films comprised of ZnO nanocrystals coated with Al2O3 and also HfO2 by ALD. Although both insulating infills decrease the sheet resistance and increase the stability of the films, there is a stark discrepancy between the two. From the in situ measurements, it was found that coating with Al2O3 removes both physisorbed water and chemisorbed hydroxide, resulting in a net reduction of the ZnO nanocrystals. Coating with HfO2 removes only physisorbed water, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A similar phenomenon was observed when thin films comprised of Sn-doped In2O3 nanocrystals were coated, suggesting Al2O3 can be used to reduce and stabilize metal oxide nanocrystals in general.

[Reprinted with permission from American Chemical Society. Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society,Chem. Mater., 2016, 28 (15), pp 5549–5553,  Account #: 3000915597]

ALD Lab Saxony auf der ALD2016 in Dublin, Irland

Unter inhaltlicher Leitung von Herrn Dr. Simon Elliott (Tyndall National Institute) und Herrn Dr. Jonas Sundqvist (Lund University & Fraunhofer IKTS) fand die weltgrößte ALD Konferenz dieses Jahr in Dublin (Irland) statt.

Mehr als 800 Teilnehmer, zu gleichen Teilen Forschungs- und Industrievertreter, informierten sich zu den Fokusthemen „Atomic Layer Deposition and Etching“ und tauschten sich zu aktuellen Entwicklungen und Anwendungen aus. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit konnte das ALD Lab Saxony im Feld „ALD Precursor Screening„ und "3D Integration - Advanced Packaging“ verzeichnen.


Auf dem Gemeinschaftsstand des ALD Lab Saxony präsentierten sich unsere Mitglieder mit ihren Leistungen, Produkten und Kompetenzen. Die stetig hohen Besucher- und Interessentenzahlen am Stand unterstreichen die wachsende Bedeutung des „Atomic Layer Processing“ für die Wirtschaft.

Höhepunkt für das ALD Lab Saxony war zweifelsohne die Präsentation von 18 wissenschaftlichen Veröffentlichungen durch Mitglieder von ALD Lab Saxony. Abgerundet wurde das Konferenzprogramm mit einem Besucherrundgang durch das Tyndall National Institute.

Weitere Informationen u.a. zu den Fachvorträgen finden sie hier
Die nächste ALD Konferenz in 2017 wird in Denver, Colorado (USA) stattfinden und bietet Ihnen bereits jetzt lukrative Sponsoring-Pakete.

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Invited Speakers for China ALD 2016 Announced

Following the successes of the previous two international Conferences on ALD Applications and China ALD Conferences since 2010, the 3rd International Conference on ALD Applications & 2016 China ALD Conference will be a four-day meeting, dedicated to the fundamentals and applications of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technology in various fields. It will be held in Suzhou, China, from October 16 to 19, 2016. This conference will feature plenary sessions, oral sessions, poster sessions and industrial exhibitions.

Recently the Keynote Speakers (see above) as well as the list of Invited Speakers have been updated and can be found here: http://www.c-ald.com/Data/View/69.

Also full contributed papers will be peer reviewed and published in a special issue Nanoscale Research Letters (2015 impact factor: 2.584)​.

Monday, August 15, 2016

modularflow launches mini ALD reactor with integrated QCM

modularflow has launched a new mini ALD reactor with integrated Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) to be used in R&D for processing small 1 inch coupon based substrates or by using the double sided high sensitivity QCM conduct very fast precursor screening and development.

IHM of TU Dresden and Fraunhofer have under the collaboration of "ALD Lab Saxony" for a number of years collaborated with modularflow in using the mini ALD Reactor for fast precursor screening. They presented results together in the Poster Session of ALD 2016 some weeks ago (see Poster below). The presented work was part of the Master Thesis research of Shashank Shukla at IHM TU Dresden under Prof. Bartha.

Poster session at ALD 2016, Martin Kanut (left) and Christoph Hossbach (right) presenting the poster on the Fast Screening ALD system at IHM, TU Dresden. (Photo Katharina Knaut)

modularflow mini ALD reactor

Taking into account some requirements and suggestions by the researchers in Dresden, modularflow has now launched a new version of its mini ALD reactor. The new system consist of :
  • Ultra-compact metal sealed table-top precursor and process screening system
  • Up to 4 precursor sources (2 heatable up to 190°C, 2 unheated)
  • Double-sided media contact of the QCM with polymer sealed electrical contact surfaces
  • Designed for fume cupboard and glove box application (discrete electronic box) 

modularflow mini ALD Dimensions with 3 precursor sources: approx. 420 x 260 x 350 mm 

  • Operating temperature substrate holder: up to 300° C 
  • Operating temperature QCM: up to 250° C 
  • Operating pressure: 0 to 1000 mbar (absolute) 
  • Maximum substrate size: Ø26 mm x 2 mm 
  • Crystal sensor: Ø14 mm (metal-ceramic feed through) 

 ALD-cycle control (PLC based with 3,5‘ touchscreen) with:

  • pressure graph of the ALD cycle 
  • exposure time enhancement with multiple precursor pulses 
  • carrier gas modulation for enhancement of precursor transport 
  • Ethernet-connectors (e.g. for HMI remote viewer)

modularflow Oliver Feddersen-Clausen


Saturday, August 13, 2016

Tokyo Electron - A spacer-on-spacer scheme for self-aligned multiple patterning and integration

Tokyo Electron showcase "A spacer-on-spacer scheme for self-aligned multiple patterning and integration" using ALD which is claimed to be a "novel, low-cost spacer-on-spacer pitch-splitting approach is targeted at sub-32nm pitch for 7nm technology nodes and beyond"

The ALD process rauns at room-temperature depositing a silicon dioxide film that is compatible with organic materials as the first spacer.

Please read the full article in SPIE News Room here.

Illustration of the proposed spacer-on-spacer SAQP integration. Depo: Deposition. Pull: Removal (of spacer). Figure form SPIE Newsroom.

Thursday, August 11, 2016

UPDATE : ALD-Fest in Dresden!

Pssst #ALDFest will be taking place also this year in Dresden even that SEMICON Europa is in Grenoble this year. Most probably we will also this year book "Brauhaus am Waldschlösschen"

This will be a great opportunity to meet & network with ALD professionals and customers in Silicon Saxony!


Sponsors are most welcome!
Schedule 22nd of September 2016 (tentative)
16:00-18:00 ALD Lab Saxony Kick off & Review of ALD2016 Ireland
18:00- ALD Fest. Location pending, most hopefully Brauhaus Waldschlösschen

Euro CVD & Baltic ALD 2017 Exhibition in Sweden will sell out!

The Exhibition at EuroCVD & BalticALD 2017 in Sweden will sell out! Please take the chance to join ALD Lab Saxony as an Exhibitor at this main European ALD & CVD event in 2017.

CVD-ALD bonanza that will take place in Linköping, Sweden 2017. We will organize a joint EuroCVD-BalticALD meeting over three packed days 11-14 June including a 4th day Tutorial and welcome mixer on Sunday evening.

Sponsors & Exhibitors

please contact Henrik Pedersen (henrik.pedersen@liu.se) or Jonas Sundqvist (jonas.sundqvist@baldengineering.com) for sponsoring and to take part in exhibition of this event!

Tokyo Electron to Begin Accepting Orders for Triase+™ EX-II™ TiON

Simultaneously as Lam Research launches Fluorine free Tungsten for 3DNAND and DRAM, Tokyo Electron is launching their newset version of the market leading TiN Trias Tool that has been dominated the TiN MIM Capacitor electrode (e.g. DRAM memory cells) market since there was a market for it. The first version that was rolled out to most DRAM fabs at the introduction of high-k used a processes called SFD - Sequential Flow Deposition, which is a sort of pulsed CVD with  proprietary reductive gas flow pulses by NH3. Later a even more advanced processes called ASFD -  Advanced Sequential Flow Deposition has been developed. The key to these type of TiCl4/NH3 based processes is that it will always beat ALD in terms of throughput without compromising in film quality including great stepcoverage, i.e., conformal growth. Yet another reason why Tokyo Electron has been dominating the TiN market is the use of in-situ clean by ClF3. 

Tokyo Electron to Begin Accepting Orders for Triase+™ EX-II™ TiON, a Single-Wafer Metallization System

Aug 8, 2016 Tokyo Electron Limited (TEL) announced today that it would begin accepting orders for the Triase+TM EX-IITM TiON (titanium oxynitride) single-wafer metallization system in August 2016.

The Triase+ EX-II TiON is a high-speed, single-wafer ASFD  [1] system capable of oxidizing TiN (titanium nitride) films. This new system inherits the optimized reactor chamber and unique gas injection mechanism that characterize the Triase+ EX-II TiN system. Because the TiON film deposited by the Triase+ EX-II TiON has a higher work function [2] than that of a conventional TiN film, it effectively reduces leakage current when used to form the electrodes of an MIM capacitor [3]. Customers already using the TiN system can upgrade to the TiON system by modifying their existing systems, thereby reducing investment costs.

"The Triase+ EX-II TiON is a product with significant cost and performance benefits that can meet the continual demand for miniaturization in semiconductor manufacturing processes," said Shingo Tada, Vice President and General Manager of Thin Film Formation BU at TEL. "We intend to keep expanding the type of films the Triase+ EX-II series can handle, enabling it to cover an even greater variety of metallization applications in the future."

Leveraging its ability to develop innovative technologies, TEL will continue to deliver products that add high value and optimize solutions to the technological problems associated with advanced devices.

[1] ASFD: Advanced Sequential Flow Deposition. A low-temperature processing method for forming nanoscale metal films with highly-engineered properties.
[2] Work function: The minimum quantity of energy required to remove an electron from the surface of a solid.
[3] MIM capacitor: Metal-Insulator-Metal capacitor. It consists of an insulator layer between two metal layers.

Wednesday, August 10, 2016

[UPDTAE] Lam Research launch New ALTUS(R) Max E Series for Low-fluorine, Low-stress, and Low-resistivity ALD Tungsten

[UPDATE] :  Lam Blog - Innovative Tungsten ALD Process Provides Pathway to New Memory Chip Production : http://blog.lamresearch.com/innovative-tungsten-ald-process-provides-pathway-to-new-memory-chip-production/

 ALTUS Max E Series 4 station chambers (Picture from Lam Blog)

FREMONT, CA -- (Marketwired) -- 08/09/16 -- Lam Research Corp. (NASDAQ: LRCX), an advanced manufacturer of semiconductor equipment, today introduced an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for depositing low-fluorine-content tungsten films, the latest addition to its industry-leading ALTUS® family of products. With the industry's first low-fluorine tungsten (LFW) ALD process, the ALTUS Max E Series addresses memory chipmakers' key challenges and enables the continued scaling of 3D NAND and DRAM devices. Building on Lam's market-leading product portfolio for memory applications, the new system is gaining market traction worldwide, winning production positions at leading 3D NAND and DRAM manufacturers and placement at multiple R&D sites.

ALTUS Max E Series 4 station chambers shuffling wafers (Picture from Lamresearch.com)

"Consumer demand for ever more powerful devices is driving the need for high-capacity, high-performance storage, and deposition and etch are key process technology enablers of advanced memory chips," said Tim Archer, Lam's chief operating officer. "With the addition of the ALTUS Max E Series, we are expanding our memory portfolio and enabling our customers to capitalize on this next wave of industry drivers. Over the past twelve months, as the 3D NAND inflection has accelerated, we have doubled our shipments for these applications, leading to the largest deposition and etch installed base in our 3D NAND served markets."

As manufacturers increase the number of memory cell layers for 3D NAND, two issues have become apparent for tungsten deposition in the word line fill application. First, fluorine diffusion from the tungsten film into the dielectrics can cause physical defects. Second, higher cumulative stress in devices with more than 48 pairs has resulted in excessive bowing. The resulting defects and stress can cause yield loss, as well as degraded electrical performance and device reliability. Because of these issues, tungsten films for advanced 3D NAND devices must have significantly reduced fluorine and intrinsic stress. Further, as critical dimensions shrink, resistance scaling becomes more challenging for the DRAM buried word line, as well as for metal gate/metal contact applications in logic devices.

"As memory chip manufacturers move to smaller nodes, the features that need to be filled are increasingly narrow and have higher aspect ratios," said Sesha Varadarajan, group vice president, Deposition Product Group. "Lam's new LFW ALD solution uses a controlled surface reaction to tune stress and fluorine levels and to lower resistance, all while delivering the required tungsten fill performance and productivity. When compared to chemical vapor deposition tungsten, the ALTUS Max E Series lowers fluorine content by up to 100x, lowers stress by up to 10x, and reduces resistivity by over 30%, solving some of our customers' most critical scaling and integration challenges."

The ALTUS Max E Series with LFW ALD technology offers a unique all-ALD deposition process that leverages Lam's PNL® (Pulsed Nucleation Layer) technology, which is the industry benchmark for tungsten ALD with 15 years of market leadership and more than 1,000 modules in production. Lam led the transition of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tungsten nucleation to ALD tungsten nucleation with its PNL technology. The company continued that leadership by advancing low-resistivity tungsten solutions with its products ALTUS® Max with PNLxT™, ALTUS® Max with LRWxT™, and ALTUS® Max ExtremeFill™ for enhanced fill performance.

The ALTUS products use Lam's quad-station module (QSM) architecture to allow per-station optimization of tungsten nucleation and fill for fluorine, stress, and resistance without compromising fill performance since station temperature can be set independently. The QSM configuration also maximizes productivity of the all-ALD process by providing up to 12 pedestals per system, enabling the highest footprint productivity in the industry.

Friday, August 5, 2016

ALD 2017 Denver, Colorado July 15-18

ALD 2017: 
17th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition - Featuring the Atomic Layer Etching Workshop-

Web: http://www2.avs.org/conferences/ALD/2017/

July 15-18, 2017

Sheraton Denver, Denver, Colorado
Please note that this year’s Tutorial will be held on Saturday and Sessions and Exhibits will be held Sunday-Tuesday.  
Click here to learn more about the venue

ALD 2017 will be a three-day meeting (preceded by a one day tutorial), dedicated to the science and technology of atomic layer controlled deposition of thin films. Once again the meeting will feature the Atomic Layer Etching Workshop. As in past conferences, the presentations will follow an all-electronic format, and electronic copies of the presentations will available online.
February 17, 2017 
Details will be posted to the ALD 2017 Website in November 2016.
Bookmark: www.ald-avs.org

Contact Della Miller, AVS, 530-896-0477, della@avs.org 

Wednesday, August 3, 2016

ALD History Blog: ALD Innovation Prize to Dr. Suvi Haukka, ASM

Riikka Puurunen has written a nice blog about Dr. Suvi Haukka, ASM was awarded the ALD Innovation Prize at the ALD 2016 Ireland conference. Below are some additional pictures from the Prize giving ceremony at the opening of the conference.

History of ALD Innovation Prize, as shared by Gregory Parsons. Photo by Riikka Puurunen. (ALD History Blog)

ALD History Blog: ALD Innovation Prize to Dr. Suvi Haukka, ASM: Dr. Suvi Haukka , executive scientist at ASM , located Finland, was awarded the ALD Innovation prize at the ALD 2016 Ireland conference. I...

Picture from BALD Engineering (Twitter.com)

Pictures from www.ald2016.com

Monday, August 1, 2016

RAFALD Le Workshop du Réseau des Acteurs Francais de l'ALD 14-16 Novembre 2016 Paris

RAFALD - Ce workshop dédié à la technologie ALD (Dépôt de Couches Atomiques - Atomic Layer Deposition) a pour but de fédérer une communauté française (industrielle et académique) pour initier la création d’un réseau national.

Public visé : Laboratoires académiques, industriels.

Domaines visés : microélectronique, énergie, textile, biologie, nanotechnologie.

Niveau : Tous niveaux

Sunday, July 31, 2016

ASM news from 2Q 2016 Earnings call

The ASM International 2Q/2016 Earnings Call transcript with CEO Chuck Del Prado is now available online here. From Seeking Alpha. Here is the initial opening of the call:

Orders were mainly driven by our ALD business. Looking at our bookings, Logic/Foundry represented the largest segment in the second quarter, and showed a strong increase compared to the third quarter, driven by demand related to the 10-nanometer technology node. Orders in the logic sector decreased compared to the first quarter, while foundry orders strongly increased.

So, as now, looking at a little bit more detail to our ALD business, as mentioned earlier in this call, 10 millimeter investments in Logic/Foundry strongly supported our bookings during the quarter. Single-waiver ALD is a critical enabling technology for Logic and Foundry customers to make the transition to 10-nanometer. The next to high-k metal gate applications, more precise and conformal deposition is needed for several other critical process steps to build these advanced infrastructures. As we have mentioned before, the shrink to 10-nanometer results in the qualification of our single-wafer XP8 for low-temperature ALD patterning application in the Logic/Foundry segment.

A slide from the ASM presentation given at the SEMICON West ASM Technology seminar giving the details on the ALD application for metal oxide hard masks. (asm.com)
In addition, we have developed new applications. As an example, such an innovative ALD application that we highlighted at our technology seminar, earlier this month at Semicon West is the usual ALD metal oxide hardmask in the 10-nanometer node.  [LINK]
This is just one example where ALD technology supports our customers in addressing the challenges of ever-smaller geometries in 3D device structures. Consequently, the number of ALD layers for 10-nanometer, for which we have been selected, has increased substantial compared to the 14/16 nanometer technology node, which we believe positions us well for a significant increase in the share of wallet with key customers in the Logic/Foundry segment. Longer-term, the introduction of new materials and architectures, such as [indiscernible] will further increase the ALD opportunity we believe in the Logic/Foundry sector.

In the memory market, our ALD equipment has supported key customers in the ramp of several technology generations. Multiple patterning continues to be a key enabler for customer in the DRAM sector in their move to the 1x technology node, especially with some of our most recent single-wafer ALD process and hardware innovations. We are well-positioned to serve these increased patterning requirements of our DRAM customers as soon as demand for capacity in this industry segment picks up. In NAND flash, customer investments are largely geared now towards 3D NAND. There is little need for multiple patterning single-wafer ALD capacity, which up until last year was a solid driver for us in Planar NAND.