Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Improving SAQP Patterning Yield using Virtual Fabrication and Advanced Process Control

Here is a noceanimation and descrioption of the Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning (SAQP) from Coventor.
[Coventor] Advanced logic scaling has created some difficult technical challenges, including a requirement for highly dense patterning. Imec recently confronted this challenge, by working toward the use of Metal 2 (M2) line patterning with a 16 nm half-pitch for their 7nm node (equivalent to a 5nm foundry node). Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning (SAQP) was investigated as an alternative path to Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) lithography for this line patterning application. At the 2019 SPIE Advanced Lithography conference, Coventor personnel demonstrated how virtual process modeling (combined with advanced process control) could provide enhanced patterning yield and enable SAQP patterning at this tight pitch (See Complete White Paper).
Source: Coventor LINK

Monday, April 29, 2019

Millennium-Technologiepreis 2018 gewinner Dr. Tuomo Suntola kommt nach Dresden

Millennium-Technologiepreis 2018 gewinner Dr. Tuomo Suntola kommt nach Dresden - Keynote bei V2019 9. Oktober 2019. Er entwickelte innovative Technologie der Atomlagenabscheidung.

Helsinki, 22. Mai 2018. Die vom finnischen Physiker Tuomo Suntola entwickelte innovative Technologie der Atomlagenabscheidung (atomic layer deposition, ALD) ermöglicht uns ein Leben mit hocheffizienten IT-Produkten und sozialen Medien. Die ALD-Technologie bietet zudem Einsatzmöglichkeiten in den Bereichen Medizin und nachhaltige Energie. Der Präsident der Republik Finnland, Sauli Niinistö, überreichte den achten Millennium-Technologiepreis am 22.5.2018 in Helsinki.

Link: https://news.cision.com/de/technology-academy-finland--taf-/r/der-finnische-physiker-tuomo-suntola-erhalt-den-millennium-technologiepreis-2018-fur-seine-innovatio,c2524413
V2019 – Vakuum & Plasma Oktober 8-10
Vorträge und Diskussionen, Neuigkeiten und Trends und Themenschwerpunkte:
  • Energie
  • Bio & Medizin
  • Optik
  • Verschleißschutz
  • ALD (Vorlesung, Poster, Workshop)
Link: https://www.efds.org/event/v2019-vakuum-plasma/

Sunday, April 28, 2019

China’s water crisis stems the flow of zirconium and rare earths for global industries

World Water Day on 22nd March highlighted some staggering facts about water shortages affecting much of the world’s population. While many Western countries take access to clean water for granted, growing water crises in other countries have world-wide consequences. For example, China is taking steps to secure its water resources, with severe impacts for global supply chains across multiple industries.

‘Our bodies, our cities and our industries, our agriculture and our ecosystems all depend on it,’ said UN Secretary-General António Guterres. 70-80% of all water consumption is for agriculture and energy production. Balancing the water needs of food and energy production is a challenge for many nations.

Water is also essential to mining, chemicals production, and manufacturing, industries which have long assumed ongoing, plentiful supply. This perception is changing as a deeper understanding of the water balance for each country reveals a different reality. Some countries, including China, are net water exporters: the water used to produce the goods and materials they export is higher than the water embodied in imports. Also, the production of exports often pollutes their waterways.

As water stress sets in, these countries have no choice but to change their production practices and trade balance, disrupting global supply chains. For the past five years, the World Economic Forum has ranked water crises in its top 5 global risks in terms of impact, yet most industrial companies seem oblivious to the risks to supply chains for themselves and their customers.

Some provinces have water resources on par with the Middle East. Source: CWR LINK 

Graphic media images of devastating floods from typhoons and other extreme weather events give the impression that China has plenty of water. In southern China, this is partially true, but it’s not so in the north. According to China Water Risk, the 11 driest provinces are in northern China. Home to 38% of the population, these provinces account for 36% of agricultural output, 47% of industrial output and 43% of GDP, yet have only 7% of the country’s water resources. With a population of around 100 million, Shandong province, for example, has only 250 m3 of water per person – less than most countries in the Middle East. Less than 500 m3 of water per person is considered a critical shortage.

To meet demand, the Chinese have been extracting groundwater at unsustainably high rates. The driest 11 provinces rely on groundwater for 28% of water needs, compared to just 13% for the 13 most water-secure provinces, which are mostly in the south. If business continues as usual, water demand will exceed supply by 2030. Chinese authorities are well aware of these issues and are moving responsibly to impose the ‘three red lines’: national water quotas set for 2015, 2020 and 2030. The Made in China 2025 policy promotes high-GDP low-water industries and China is continuing its ‘war on pollution’.

The implications for China’s chemicals industries and the supply chains that depend on them are profound. For example, China dominates global zirconium chemicals supply on which the world relies for: mobile communications, clean energy technologies, catalytic converters used in the automotive industry, jet turbines, bio-ceramic dental, knee, and hip implants, and waterproof and fire-resistant fabrics. But two-thirds of China’s zirconium chemicals production is located in the dry northern provinces, with 52% of capacity in parched Shandong.

Similarly, China has conquered more than 90% of the rare earths market. Rare earths have multiple applications in advanced technology for transport, information, and communications, defense and medicine. Most of China’s rare earths production occurs in Inner Mongolia, where water supply is also under stress, despite relatively low population density.

So, what happens when Chinese authorities reduce or withdraw water access for zirconium and rare earths production? Or when new anti-pollution laws impose severe remediation costs on producers? Severe impacts will be felt around the world unless alternative supplies of these critical materials can be found.

Fortunately, Australia has the opportunity to secure a strategic alternative supply of zirconium, rare earths and other essential elements, for 80+ years. The world-class Dubbo Project in central NSW has a water supply and licenses in place, and water efficiency measures include extensive recycling and optimization of product and waste streams. To progress the Dubbo Project to construction, Alkane Resources seeks a blend of financing from export credit agencies, strategic partners and equity and debt markets. Information for investors is available here 
Guest Blog by Alister MacDonald, General Manager - Marketing, Alkane Resources

ASM beats first-quarter targets, sees market outperformance in 2019

Dutch semiconductor supplier ASM International on Wednesday reported first-quarter revenue of 249 million euros ($278.5 million) and an order intake of 235 million euros, both exceeding its own expectations.
Source: Reuters LINK
In the 1Q/2019 Investor presentation (LINK) ASMI reports strong long term growth prospects:
  • ALD market expected to be a key growth market, ASMI has a leadership position in ALD
  • Driving structurally higher sales in the other product lines
  • Solid momentum in the first part of 2019 driven by ASMI’s strong position in logic/foundry
ASMI has leading positions in ALD
  • ASMI has the strongest position in logic/foundry. 
  • Logic/foundry ALD market more than doubled from 14nm/16nm to 7nm
  • ALD continued to account for more than half of ASM’s equipment revenue in 2018
  • Strong focus on increasing our addressable market within single wafer ALD
Strong market outlook ALD
  • The CAGR of the single wafer ALD segment is expected to be the highest within the deposition equipment market in the next years
Solid growth expected for the ALD market
  • ASMI expect the single wafer ALD market to reach a size of approx. US$1.5 billion by ‘20-’21
  • Focus on expanding their addressable market within the single wafer ALD space
  • ASMI outperformed WFE in 2018 and expects to outperform WFE in 2019
  • Launch of new XP8 QCM tool in January 2019, offering a substantial improvement in productivity for advanced applications. The XP8 QCM is already in high-volume manufacturing at multiple customers
More than 50% of ASM´s revenue 2018 came from the top 3 semiconductor equipment spenders, i.e., Samsung, TSMC and Intel.

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Micro-LEDs achieve superior brightness with Picosun’s ALD technology

ESPOO, Finland, 23rd April 2019 – Picosun Group, supplier of the leading AGILE ALD™ (Atomic Layer Deposition) thin film coating solutions, reports superb results in boosting micro-LED performance using ALD passivation. 
Researchers from Taiwan’s National Chiao Tung University, China’s Xiamen University and SIJ Technology have developed a monolithic Micro LED which achieves full-color display. Through the adoption of ALD, the thin layer between multiple quantum wells and quantum dots of NR Micro LED can be controlled and nonradiative resonant energy transfer (NRET) for color conversion can be maintained (LINK).
Micro-LEDs are a strong challenger to existing display technologies such as LCDs (liquid crystal displays), OLEDs (organic light-emitting diodes) or conventional LEDs (light-emitting diodes). Offering compact size, low power consumption, superior brightness, and energy efficiency, higher contrast and color saturation, ultra-high resolution, flexibility, and excellent reliability, micro-LEDs are currently actively studied and developed at the leading electronics manufacturers and R&D institutes around the world. Micro-LEDs are typically used for small screens such as those used in tablets, smartphones, and smartwatches, and the first large area displays have also been demonstrated already.

The Co-Lab collaboration signature ceremony of NCTU and Finland Picosun 2015 (LINK)
Still, the micro-LED technology has certain drawbacks that hinder its full-scale commercial breakthrough. The micro-LED screen consists of minuscule pixels producing green, blue and red light. Some steps in the manufacturing process of these pixels easily cause damage to their delicate nanometer-scale structures, which leads to loss of light intensity. ALD has now been proven to effectively fix these damages, not only restoring the light intensity but actually boosting it to superior levels. At Picosun customer site, National Chiao Tung University (NCTU), Taiwan, the light-emitting intensity of micro-LEDs has been enhanced by 143.7% by using ALD passivation layers deposited with PICOSUN™ ALD equipment(*).

“We are happy to report these great results achieved in micro-LED efficiency enhancement using ALD technology. PICOSUN™ ALD equipment has been an integral part of our facilities for a long time, and we are always impressed by their performance and the superior ALD film quality obtained with them. Picosun’s customer support is also impeccable, which is very much appreciated considering we collaborate extensively with industries. Whenever we need something regarding the equipment or process consultancy, Picosun staff is always up to date and ready to provide thorough answers,” states Professor Hao-Chung Kuo from NCTU.

“NCTU is our prestigious customer and a key partner for years already. We are glad that our ALD solutions have enabled this impressive performance boost to their micro-LEDs. Micro-LED technology has immense potential to disrupt the solid-state lighting market and our Asian customers, both in industries and R&D, will surely lead the forefront of this development,” continues Mr. Edwin Wu, CEO of Picosun Asia Pte. Ltd.

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

NCD’s ALD IGZO TFTs exhibit remarkable stabilities

NCD Co., Ltd, a global equipment and technology provider of ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition), has developed oxide Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) using In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) channels.

IGZO oxide TFTs have rapidly been increased interest in these days, as LTPO oxide TFTs have been adapted for state of the art displays like apple watches as well as IGZO is the most applicable for future transparent flexible devices due to its high mobility and optical transparency. However, IGZO thin films are required to meet the various properties such as higher resolution, large-area uniformity, and better device stability with ultra-thin and flexible structures. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has recently been reported as a replacement for the conventional sputtering method for fabricating IGZO thin films. The sputtering deposition has some problems such as uniformity issues in thickness and composition, degradation of properties by plasma damages and non-uniformity in the magnetic field, and stability issue of the sputtering target. While ALD-IGZO could show film thickness and composition control in atomic scale, high film conformity and excellent thickness uniformity on large area substrates because ALD is dominated by a self-limiting growth mechanism.

Figure 1: (a) Structure of IGZO TFT and microscopic cross-sectional view of IGZO TFT by Lucida GD Series ALD

Figure 2: a) Comparisons of the IDS–VGS transfer characteristics and IGS gate leakage currents between the devices using ALD IGZO channels with thicknesses of 6 and 10 nm. (b) IDS–VDS output characteristics for the TFT using 6 nm-thick IGZO channel.(*)

NCD has developed oxide TFTs using very thin In-Ga-Zn-O channels, and the excellent device characteristics and the reliable bias temperature stabilities can be successfully obtained. Such a remarkable device stabilities of TFTs with the IGZO channel prepared by the ALD process can help extend the employment of IGZO TFTs for various applications.(*)

NCD’s Lucida GD Series ALD which can run up to 6th generation substrates (1500x1850mm2) could be the best ALD coating solutions for IGZO channels since it’s very compatible, reliable, and producible on large area applications. NCD could provide the most advanced ALD-IGZO technology with its technological knowledge and experience to the customers who are seeking competitive ALD-IGZO systems for current LTPO applications or large-area OLED displays as well as for future flexible transparent displays.

Figure 3: Lucida™ GD Series ALD

* RSC Adv., 2018, 8, 25014, Investigations on the bias temperature stabilities of oxide thin film transistors using In–Ga–Zn–O channels prepared by atomic layer deposition, So-Jung Yoon, Nak-Jin Seong, Kyujeong Choi, Woong-Chul Shin, and Sung-Min Yoon. DOI: 10.1039/c8ra03639j

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

AVS ALD2019 & ALE2019 Technical Program

Key Deadlines:
Late News Abstract Deadline: May 6, 2019
Early Registration Deadline: June 1, 2019
Hotel Reservation Deadline: June 27, 2019
JVST Special Issue Deadline: November 1, 2019
Call for Late News Abstracts: May 6, 2019
The AVS 19th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD 2019) featuring the 6th International Atomic Layer Etching Workshop (ALE 2019) will be a three-day meeting dedicated to the science and technology of atomic layer controlled deposition of thin films and now topics related to atomic layer etching. The conference will take place Sunday, July 21-Wednesday, July 24, 2019, at the Hyatt Regency Bellevue in Bellevue, Washington (East Seattle). The meeting will be preceded (Sunday, July 21) by one day of tutorials and a welcome reception. Sessions will take place (Monday-Wednesday, July 22-24) along with an industry tradeshow. All presentations will be audio-recorded and provided to attendees following the conference (posters will be included as PDFs). Anticipated attendance is 800+.
Download the ALD-ALE Mobile App
Logging into the app allows you to access messaging, enable the synchronization of notes, favorites, and scheduled items between devices and the online scheduler. Click Here for Download Details 
Plenary Speaker
  • Jeff Elam (Argonne National Lab, USA)
  • Eric Joseph (IBM, USA)

ALD Invited Speakers
  • Silvia Armini (IMEC, Belgium)
  • Ageeth Bol (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, Netherlands)
  • Jolien Dendooven (Ghent Univ., Belgium)
  • Eric Dickey (Lotus Applied Technology, USA)
  • John Ekerdt (Univ.of Texas, Austin, USA)
  • Fabio Grillo (ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
  • Hyeongtag Jeon (Hanyang Univ., South Korea)
  • Jessica Kachian (Intel, USA)
  • Rajesh Krishnamurthy (TechInsights/Chipworks, Canada)
  • Alex Martinson (Argonne National Lab, USA)
  • Niloy Mukherjee (Eugenus, Inc., USA)
  • Jin-Seong Park (Hanyang Univ., South Korea)
  • Henrik Pedersen (Linkoping Univ., Sweden)
  • Madhukar Rao (Versum Materials, USA)
  • Dina Triyoso (Tokyo Electron, USA)
  • Ginger Wheeler (U.S. Naval Research Lab, USA)
ALE Invited Speakers
  • Tomoko Ito (Osaka Univ., Japan)
  • Sabbir A. Khan (Niels Bohr Institute, Univ. of Copenhagen, Denmark)
  • Nobuyuki Kuboi (Sony Semiconductor Solutions Corp., Japan)
  • Xu Li (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)
  • Alfredo Mameli (TNO-Holst Centre, The Netherlands)
  • Angelique Raley (TEL Technology Center, America, USA)
  • Kazunori Shinoda (Hitachi Ltd, Japan)
  • Samantha Tan (Lam Research, USA)

Tutorial Speakers
  • Area-selective ALD for Semiconductor Manufacturing, Stacey Bent (Stanford Univ., USA)
  • ALD for Battery Applications, Andy Sun (Western Univ., Canada)
  • ALD for Catalysis, Rong Chen (Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, China)
  • ALD for Photovoltaics, Bart Macco (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, Netherlands)
  • Plasma Based ALE, Thorsten Lill, (Lam Research, USA)
  • Thermal Based ALE, Steve George (Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA)
ALD Program Chairs
Program Chair:
Sumit Agarwal
(Colorado School of Mines, USA)

Program Co-Chair:
Dennis Hausmann
(Lam Research, USA)

ALE Program Chairs

Program Chair:
Craig Huffman
(Micron Technology, USA)

Program Co-Chair:
Gottlieb Oehrlein
(University of Maryland, USA)

Thursday, April 11, 2019

the ALD 2019 Innovator Awarde to Prof. W. M. M. (Erwin) Kessels, Eindhoven University of Technology TU/e

Prof. W. M. M. (Erwin) Kessels, Eindhoven University of Technology TU/e - the ALD 2019 Innovator Awardee - The ALD Innovator award “For Original Work and Leadership in ALD” will be presented on Monday prior to the Plenary Lectures.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Strem high purity liquid ruthenium precursor for emerging ALD and CVD applications

Ruthenium has been under investigation for years among researchers all across the globe for applications such as high-work function electrodes in dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitors or gate stack in p-channel metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) in the front end of line (FEOL). It has also been considered for alloyed diffusion barriers, adhesion layers or seed layers in interconnects or through silicon vias (TSVs) for direct electrochemical deposition of copper in the back end of line (BEOL). In these applications, atomic layer deposition based on ultra-thin Ru films offer unique advantages.

Most of the available Ru ALD or CVD precursors have issues concerning low vapor pressure and high impurity levels, such as carbon and oxygen, which get incorporated in the films. In addition to that, long incubation times impacting throughput and process controllability, poor film adherence, and non-uniformity in high-aspect-ratio structures are some critical limitations of the field. However, Strem Chemicals—a high purity specialty chemicals’ manufacturer and supplier—offers a well-preferred bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) [[(CH3CH2)C5H4]2Ru] (catalog number 44-0040) precursor for depositing Ru based ALD/CVD films for niche applications, such as aligned RuO2 nanorods. The pale yellow liquid precursor with a density of 1.3412 and vapor pressure ~0.2mm (85°C), is sold pre-packed in ALD cylinders by Strem Chemical. These fit many of the ALD tools on the market as well as many custom laboratory designed tools. 
Recently, (March 19-20, 2019) Strem exhibited at the annual EFDS ALD for Industry Workshop in Berlin, Germany and we had a chance to discuss Ruthenium precursors with attendees. Here is a short section from the well-known Strem ALD/CVD Precursor Catalogue.

Here are just a few examples of thermal as well as plasma driven thin film deposition processes based on bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) precursor presented by the diverse group of researchers at this meeting.

Thomas Waechtler et. al. have reported plating results on layers of ALD Cu with underlying Ru deposited using bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) outperforming ones achieved on PVD Cu seed layers with respect to morphology and resistivity. Application of these processes suggest that a combination of ALD Cu with PVD or ALD-grown Ru could significantly improve the ECD Cu growth.
Researchers from the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology studied structures and electrochemical capacitive properties of RuO2 vertical nanorods encased in hydrous RuO2. They grew vertically aligned RuO2 nanorods with an aspect ratio in the range of 28-30 on the LiNbO3(100) substrate via metal-organic CVD (MOCVD) using bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)Ru from Strem Chemicals. (Link)

A Korean research group has also reported plasma-enhanced ALD of Ru thin films performed using an alternate supply of bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium and NH3 plasma, where NH3 plasma acted as an effective reducing agent for bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium. The process exhibited no carbon or nitrogen impurities in the film as determined by elastic recoil detection time of flight analysis and the film density was found to be higher than that found in conventional oxygen based ALD.

Since 1964, Strem Chemicals, Inc. has been serving its clients from academic, industrial and government research and development laboratories as well as commercial scale businesses in the pharmaceutical, microelectronic and chemical/petrochemical industries. Strem (Headquarters: Newburyport, Massachusetts, USA) is a high quality specialty chemicals’ manufacturer and supplier. Strem also provides custom synthesis (including high-pressure synthesis) and current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) services. With ISO 9001 certification as a Quality Management System (QMS) standard with documentation, most of Strem’s products are reliable and of high purity, typically 99%, with some having 99.9999% metals purity. Strem utilizes a comprehensive range of analytical techniques tailored and applied to each product to ensure quality because the researchers typically rely on a supplier's quality procedures and documentation, which if poorly conducted may kill a great research idea. All of Strem's catalogs, since inception, have listed “Color and Form” for every product as a primary indicator of quality.

More than fifty years of experience in manufacturing inorganic and organometallic chemicals has enabled Strem to expand its product offering of MOCVD, CVD, and ALD precursors to continually add new products in support of this dynamic and exciting field. Strem’s CVD & ALD product range includes:

Promotional Blog for Strem Chemicals, Inc.
Researched, produced & written by BALD Engineering AB, Stockholm, 2019-04-10
Abhishekkumar Thakur, Jonas Sundqvist

In 2-Weeks: 2019 CMC Conference Highlights ALD/CVD Market and Technology Trends

In 2-Weeks: 2019 CMC Conference Highlights ALD/CVD  Market and Technology Trends 

 The upcoming CMC Conference, April 25-26, in Saratoga Springs, New York, will feature the latest forecasts on market drivers, trade issues, and technical issues facing precursors and other global materials supply-chains.  As shown below, CAGR for metal precursors is expected to exceed 11% through 2021.  Technology and Market Trends on atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) precursors for IC fabs will be presented and discussed at this year's conference.

The Emerging Session will include: 
  • Dr. Jonas Sundqvist, Sr. Technology Analyst of TECHCET and Group Leader of Fraunhofer Institute will be revealing TECHCET's "Market and Technology Trend Forecasts for ALD & CVD Metal and Dielectric Precursors." (Sample shown below.) 
  • Dr. Matthew Stephens, VP of Sales and Product Management for Air Liquide, will provide a presentation on "Economic Considerations of ALD Precursor Selection."
  • Dr. David Thompson, Managing Director of Chemistry for Applied Materials, will present on "Preparing Supply-Chains and Managing Risk for an Uncertain Future on Emerging Devices."

Deputy CTO & VP of Worldwide R&D, GlobalFoundries  
 "Materials Challenges & Opportunities in Differentiated Technologies" 

3-Dynamic Sessions:
  1. Global Materials Supply-Chain and Market Issues
  2. Immediate challenges of materials & manufacturing 
  3. Emerging materials in R&D and pilot fabrication
Register now by clicking on the links, above, or go to: https://cmcfabs.org/cmc-conference-2019/

The public CMC Conference follows private CMC face-to-face meetings to be held April 23-24, 2019 at GlobalFoundries in Malta, New York.

Look Who's Coming - leading fabs, equipment & materials companies:
·        Samsung
·        Texas Instruments
·        GlobalFoundries
·        TowerJazz Panasonic
·        KFMI
·        Fraunhofer
·        Wonik
·        Ereztech
·        Matheson/TNSC
·        Linde
·        Inpria
·        IMEC
·        VLSI Research
·        SACHEM
·        Niacet
·        Grikin
·        Aveni
·        Silar Labs
·        ATI Metals
·        Momentive
·  STMicroelectronics
·  ON Semiconductor
·  Broadcom
·  TEL Technology Cntr
·  Umicore
·  Kinik
·  Revera/Nova
·  Strem Chemicals
·  Grikin
·  ATI Metals
·  Cryoin
·  MGC Pure Chemicals
·  Electronic Fluorocarbons
·  ShinHao Materials
·  Applied Seals
·  Peroxychem
·  Messer
·  MPD Chemicals
·  Mott Filters

·        Intel
·        Micron
·        Cypress
·        3M
·        IBM
·        Entegris
·        Air Liquide
·        Versum Materials
·        Air Products
·        Greene Tweed
·        Eastman
·        GrandiT
·        Edwards Vacuum
·        Mega Fluid Systems
·        Zing Semiconductor
·        Schrodinger
·        Boulder Scientific
·        Johnson Matthey
·        Veeco
·        ...and More!

2019 CMC Conference Sponsors: