Showing posts with label battery. Show all posts
Showing posts with label battery. Show all posts

Wednesday, October 6, 2021

Dutch deep tech start-up Delft IMP secures €10 million series A funding to scale up technology that radically extends battery life

Sandwater, a Nordic venture capitalist and Invest-NL have agreed to a €10 million investment in Delft IMP. This allows Delft IMP to accelerate their nanocoating process to industrial scale enabling more durable batteries and other sustainable applications. The investors in this Series A are Sandwater and Invest-NL. Sandwater has a broad portfolio of investments aiming to enable progress together with its founders. Invest-NL is the government owned impact investor supporting innovation and sustainability in the Netherlands. 



Delft IMP has unique expertise in developing ultra-thin coatings on powders and has the proprietary technology to produce these materials at scale. The ultra-thin nanocoatings protect, for example battery powder from the harsh surroundings and thus enhances the life time of the battery. The Delft IMP application technology enables them to control the process to optimize the film thickness and reduce the use of scarce raw materials. 

Ruud van Ommen

Founder & Professor in Chemical Engineering at TU Delft


Jacob Moulijn

Founder & Emeritus Professor in Catalysis Engineering at TU Delft

The real benefit of the Delft IMP technology comes from the elegant way they are able to scale up the atomic layer deposition (ALD) based coating process to industrial scale. This makes it possible to deliver this benefit cost effective to a wide range of battery applications, supporting the electrification of mobility. Coating the battery powders, provides the flexibility to encounter this benefit in current and also future generations. Delft IMP is not your next battery company, but instead they work together with leading battery companies to extend the lifetime of batteries and reduce the consumption of scarce minerals. This facilitates the sustainable use of raw materials, and will also bring radical performance improvements to other technologies such as electrolysers and fuel cells. 

“We are solving the big problems in the world, by going very small: We are applying ultra-thin coatings on powder material and enable production at scale with a unique technology originating from Delft University of Technology.” said Dr. Roderik Colen, CEO of Delft IMP. 

Torkel Engeness (Sandwater) “We at Sandwater are in the market for the radical solutions of tomorrow. Sandwater believes that active ownership enables progress and is looking forward to sharing the journey together with Invest NL and Delft IMP”.

Friday, April 23, 2021

Beneq and E+R Group enter strategic partnership for roll-to-roll ALD

The revolutionary Genesis ALD platform enables next-generation battery manufacturers to scale up quickly

Beneq, a leading ALD equipment manufacturer, today announces a strategic partnership with E+R to design and commercialize innovative roll-to-roll ALD systems for R&D and volume production. The companies have together developed a revolutionary roll-to-roll ALD system.


The new ALD platform – named Genesis ALD – is targeted at various industrial R2R ALD applications, including:
  • Passivation of cathodes and anodes for various types of lithium-ion and solid-state batteries
  • Conductive layers and encapsulation for flexible solar cells
  • Moisture barriers for flexible electronics
“Bringing Beneq’s unique roll-to-roll ALD technology together with Emerson & Renwick’s deep experience in roll-to-roll vacuum and web handling is good news for the battery industry,” says Sami Sneck, Business Executive at Beneq.

“The partnership allows us to offer state-of-the-art atomic layer deposition technology for enhancing li-ion and other next-generation batteries, where we expect to see strong market demand. There is a lot of potential for this technology in other application areas too, but the market for those end-products is yet to mature,” says Sneck.

“We have worked very well with Beneq and both companies have a good grasp of the potential markets available,” says Andrew Jack, Sales Director at E+R Group. “ E+R offers a wide range of high-end R2R vacuum equipment. This collaboration makes it easier to integrate R2R ALD with other techniques where necessary.”

The partnership is effective immediately. For inquiries, visit www.beneq.com/en/contact-us.

Genesis ALD

World’s only commercially available roll-to-roll ALD system. Learn more.


Sunday, February 28, 2021

Norwegian Morrow Batteries and Dutch startup Delft IMP have signed a JDA for ALD improved batteries

Morrow Batteries explores new technology with Dutch startup-company Morrow Batteries and Delft IMP have agreed to explore a joint collaboration in using ultra-thin coating technologies to produce lower cost and more sustainable batteries. Norway-based Morrow Batteries and Dutch-based startup Delft IMP have agreed to investigate the joint development of new improved batteries. The technology used is based on atomic layer deposition (ALD).


“We are applying ultra thin coatings on powder material and can produce these at scale with a unique technology originating from Delft University of Technology.” said Dr. Roderik Colen, CEO of Delft IMP. “It is a matter of time before breakthrough developments using ultra thin coatings become commercially available. The development of Morrow Industrialization Centre (MIC) provides us with a unique opportunity to demonstrate this at scale.”

Press release: LINK

Morrow Batteries AS: LINK

Morrow Industrialization Centre (MIC) will include a pilot manufacturing line and a R&D centre. We aim to start building MIC in 2022 and be operational in 2023.

Morrow Giga Factory will be a giga-scale battery cell manufacturing factory. We are currently evaluating alternative locations and expect to take a decision by the end of 2020. We aim to start cell manufacturing in our giga-scale battery cell factory by the end of 2024.

Delft IMP: LINK

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Roll-to-roll ALD for lithium-ion batteries by Beneq R2R

In this talk with Dr. Tommi Kääriäinen of Beneq they discuss how ALD can help solve performance and safety issues for ever-evolving lithium-ion battery products. Specifically they compare roll-to-roll ALD, a tool design pioneered by Beneq, with particle ALD technology.



Don´t miss to register and tune in to Forge Nanos PALD Summit today!


Tuesday, August 27, 2019

New coating paves the way for low weight lithium metal batteries

A Dynamic, Electrolyte-Blocking, and Single-Ion-Conductive Network for Stable Lithium-Metal Anodes

Zhiao Yu, David G. Mackanic, Wesley Michaels, Jian Qin, Yi Cui, Zhenan Bao
Published:August 26, 2019 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2019.07.025

Highlights

  • A multifunctional network material is proposed to stabilize lithium-metal anodes
  • Improved cyclability is achieved for high-voltage lithium-metal full battery
  • Direct lithium-metal processability enables practical application
  • Crosslinking chemistry is tuned to study the synergistic stabilizing effects

Implementation of lithium (Li)-metal anodes requires developments to solve the heterogeneity and instability issues of naturally formed solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). The artificial SEI, as an alternative, enables an ideal interface by regulating critical features such as fast ion transport, conformal protection, and parasitic reaction mitigation. Herein, for the first time, we integrate all of these desired properties into a single matrix, the dynamic single-ion-conductive network (DSN), as a multifunctional artificial SEI. The DSN incorporates the tetrahedral Al(OR) 4 − (R = soft fluorinated linker) centers as both dynamic bonding motifs and counter anions, endowing it with flowability and Li + single-ion conductivity. Simultaneously, the fluorinated linkers provide chain mobility and electrolyte-blocking capability. A solution-processed DSN coating was found to simultaneously hinder electrolyte penetration, mitigate side reactions between Li and electrolyte, maintain low interfacial impedance, and allow homogenous Li deposition. With this coating, long cycle life and high Coulombic efficiency are achieved for Li-metal battery in a commercial carbonate electrolyte.


Friday, January 26, 2018

Battery Breakthrough Company Feature - ALD NanoSolutions

There is an ongoing boom in the materials supply chain industry to supply the Electrical Vehicle (EV) manufacturers with battery materials. There are a number of concerns in the supply of the actual materials (e.g. lithium, cobalt and graphite). The technological aspects are also still broad,  however it seems very likely that ALD will play a role for some of the technologies for producing future lithium batteries that we will use in basically all devices ranging from communication (smart phones) and for transportation (cars, trucks, trains, ships, airplanes etc.). 

Alumina ALD Coating on LiCoO2 cathode particles showing a clear improvment in battery cyclability. The ALD coated material (red) shows improved capacity retention compared to uncoated (black). (ALD Nano)

ALD Nano in Boulder Colorado is the pioneer in this technology area and has recently announced scaling up their technology to run high volume of powder (3000 kg/day). They have developed a Spatial vibrationg technology refered to as Continious Vibrating Reactor - CVR.

The scientific, process development and engineering teams at ALD Nano have spent considerable resources over the past few years rapidly developing this first-of-its-kind technology from research scale, bench-top to the current commercial-scale systems. A continuous vibrating reactor, or CVR, provides ALD coating capacity of more than three tons per day and 1,200 tons per year of particle materials. These techniques gained from equipment development open up new pathways for ALD Nano's growth. The CVR is a spatial ALD reactor system and can also be utilized for MLD techniques, run at atmospheric or pressurized conditions, and fitted with various features such as plasma. [LINK]

It seems to me that their technology is mature for high volume manufacturing of powder materials and that they "simply" by scaling the number and/or the size of plants can supply the know how and hardware for full scale production for any big player in the battery materials supply chain. 



ALD Nano was recently highlighted by the Colorado Cleantech Industries Association (CCIA) and here is the information given by their CEO, Wayne Simmons:

Battery Breakthrough Company Feature: ALD NanoSolutions

CCIA [LINK] : We asked several companies “What are the critical changes in the battery industry landscape that will have a strategic impact on your success?” This week, we’re highlighting ALD NanoSolutions.

Wayne Simmons, CEO

Lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and distributed energy storage, along with new versions of lead acid batteries for vehicle start-stop fuel efficiency strategies, are driving today’s growth in the battery energy storage market. Longer term, grid-scale batteries will generate a large impact too. Overall, the dramatic changes and expansion of the battery industry are creating huge new materials markets. Every major chemical and advanced materials company in the world is attracted to this opportunity. However, for new devices like EVs to take meaningful market share, the materials for electrodes, electrolytes, and other battery components need to be engineered at the nanometer, or even atomic, scale. It is this demand for engineering new materials that improve energy storage, safety, and power management metrics, combined with the desired cost stack of inputs to the final battery price, that has a big impact on ALD Nano’s business. The key for us to succeed is to enable the new battery materials with atomic layer deposition technologies that not only solve various technical challenges to reach performance metrics, but can also scale at very low cost.
About ALD NanoSolutions  ALD NanoSolutions (ALD Nano) is creating cost-effective advanced materials through its unique portfolio of atomic layer deposition technologies to transform industries.


Tuesday, February 14, 2017

Harvard showcases non-toxic flow battery that could run for more than a decade with minimum upkeep

Harvard reports: Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a new flow battery that stores energy in organic molecules dissolved in neutral pH water. This new chemistry allows for a non-toxic, non-corrosive battery with an exceptionally long lifetime and offers the potential to significantly decrease the costs of production. 
Prof. Roy Gordon: “Because we were able to dissolve the electrolytes in neutral water, this is a long-lasting battery that you could put in your basement. If it spilled on the floor, it wouldn’t eat the concrete and since the medium is noncorrosive, you can use cheaper materials to build the components of the batteries, like the tanks and pumps.”
The research, published in ACS Energy Letters, was led by Michael Aziz, the Gene and Tracy Sykes Professor of Materials and Energy Technologies and Roy Gordon, the Thomas Dudley Cabot Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Materials Science.
Full story: LINK

Wednesday, January 18, 2017

Candadian researchers introduce novel ceramic ALD coated solid electrolyte for safe Li-batteries

Candadian researchers from University of Calgary report novel ceramic ALD coated solid electrolyte for safe Li-batteries (LINK): Existing lithium-ion batteries like those used in the Tesla Motors cars, Chevrolet Volt, Nissan Leaf and other electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, as well as in portable electronics, use membranes of organic polymer compounds and lithium salts as the electrolyte. 
 
This is an illustration of a Li-rich garnet structure based all-solid-state-Li battery. While other research groups in the world have used garnet to build lithium batteries, “We showed we can use the lithium metal very efficiently, with the lowest interface-charge transfer resistance between the lithium electrode and the garnet electrolyte,” Thangadurai says. (Figure from www.ucalgary.ca)

The electrolyte in a battery separates the two electrodes (the positive cathode and the negative anode), and conducts the lithium ions between the electrodes during charging and discharging cycles. Currently used organic polymer-based electrolytes are flammable, so fire is a safety issue.

Instead of organic polymers for their battery, Wachsman and co-principal investigators Thangadurai and Liangbing Hu (at the UMD), along with other UMD scientists, used a solid ceramic electrolyte, which doesn’t burn.

The research team also used, for the first time, a technique called atomic layer deposition to place a thin film of aluminum oxide on top of a garnet structure coating the ceramic electrolyte.
 

Friday, November 4, 2016

ALD NanoSolutions Reports Banner Year as Its ALD Technology Helps Fast-Track Advanced Materials From Concept to Commercialization

BROOMFIELD, Colorado – Nov. 4, 2016 – Today, ALD NanoSolutions (ALD Nano), the pioneer and market leader in Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technology on particles, reported a banner year on multiple fronts. The company partners with leading global materials companies to commercialize ALD advanced materials that significantly improve the performance, safety and other characteristics of end products in industries like lighting, batteries, sensors, life sciences and catalysts. 2016 highlights include new patents, deeper customer engagements, expanded manufacturing space, and new reactors to increase production capacity. The momentum illustrates how ALD Nano is harnessing the immense near-term market opportunities for its proprietary ALD technologies outside of ALD’s traditional deployment in the semiconductor industry. 

 
Leading with Differentiated Intellectual Property (IP)
Major 2016 milestones reinforced ALD Nano’s pioneering development and leadership in ALD for control of surface properties at the atomic level for unique functionality of particles and other materials. The company obtained new patents, including some from the University of Colorado Boulder (CU Boulder), its R&D partner since inception. This brings ALD Nano’s total patent holdings to 28 issued and 14 pending. The new IP heightens the market value and cost-effective use of its “Particle ALD” and “Polymer ALD” to create advanced materials. 



An important new patent1 covers an ALD method to deposit inorganic films on organic polymer surfaces. For industries like OLED displays and lithium-ion batteries, the innovation promises breakthrough benefits that could displace other technologies. The Polymer ALD technology could better protect battery electrode separators from overheating and enable next-generation life-science tools, among other applications. 

Another new patent2 is for Particle ALD use with super capacitor electrodes, and an in-license3 from CU Boulder for additional applications of ALD for batteries. Together, they strengthen the company’s position in the energy storage market. A further patent4 covers the use of an ALD method to apply a ceramic coating to implantable medical devices. This expands ALD Nano’s position in the life sciences industry. The company also filed a patent5 internationally for its revolutionary Particle ALD continuous flow reactor system. This allows for large-scale, cost-effective Particle ALD advanced materials production.

Enabling Innovation for Manufacturers of Lithium-Ion Batteries and LED Lighting
A standout 2016 highlight was the first commercial application of Particle ALD for Cathode Active Materials (CAMs) used to produce lithium-ion batteries. The breakthrough was achieved thanks to CU Boulder’s extensive R&D and ALD Nano’s proprietary and robust IP portfolio, coupled with the company’s strategic partnership with a leading battery materials company. Particle ALD is the most effective surface modification method available for CAMs. The ALD-enabled CAMs will dramatically improve performance, extend cycle life and enhance the safety of batteries for use in consumer electronics, electric vehicles and grid storage.

Also in 2016, the company began commercial production of Particle ALD phosphors for a Fortune Global 500 customer, following a multi-year collaboration. The ALD advanced material significantly extends the brightness lifetime for LED lights, while using a fraction of the coating material required for other deposition methods.

Expanding Infrastructure to Address Growing Demand for ALD Solutions
With its accumulating IP, ALD Nano is expanding and deepening engagements with customers. To support the momentum, the company doubled manufacturing space at its headquarters in Colorado, and added new reactors to increase production capacity. Headcount has also grown in the last 12 months.

CEO Mike Masterson called 2016 a transformative year for ALD Nano: “Our growth this year coincides with the consistently superior performance of our ALD technology in many markets. This validates our early vision and is now guiding our execution strategy to create ALD advanced materials in partnership with leading sales channel partners and customers. We’ll enter 2017 firmly positioned with differentiated technology and expertise to help such companies achieve their technology and cost-of-production goals. Our growth is a tribute to the steady efforts of our team, and the extraordinary innovation contributed by each individual.”

New ALD Nano Patents
1 US Patent 9,376,750
2 US Patent 9,406,449
3 US Patent 9,196,901
4 US Patent 9,279,120
5 US Application 62/175,964

About ALD
ALD is the sequential vapor phase material deposition method that forms chemically bonded, high-purity, conformal, ultra-thin films of controlled nanometer thickness. ALD generates less waste than other deposition techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, giving customers a sustainable and cost-of-ownership edge, while helping to reduce overall costs. The atomic level precision of ALD on particles, polymers and other substrates enables new or better applications of materials resulting in ALD advanced material solutions. Devices such as consumer electronics are getting smaller and more complex, requiring novel materials to solve critical issues for marketplace adoption.

About ALD NanoSolutions
ALD NanoSolutions (ALD Nano) is creating cost-effective advanced materials that are transforming industries such as lighting, energy storage, consumer electronics, life sciences, fuel catalysts, water purification, sensors, and more. We’re the leader in Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technology on particles, with broad IP covering polymers and MEMS, as well. We partner with world-leading companies that leverage our material designs and reactor systems to innovate products that benefit consumers globally. For more than a decade, we have commercialized innovative ALD technologies developed internally and through research conducted at the University of Colorado Boulder. We’re headquartered in Broomfield, Colorado.

Company Contact: Mike Masterson; mmasterson@aldnanosolutions.com
Media Contact: Jane Evans-Ryan; Genuity PR; jane@genuitypr.com

Wednesday, July 8, 2015

PneumatiCoat completes DOE Project for a Battery Pilot Plant and recieves US Navy funding

Battery cathode materials with improved safety and performance. Picoshield® coatings provide improvements on many of the most common Li-ion cathode materials used today. As the leader in ALD battery materials PneumatiCoat (PCT) can attain cutting edge performance out of existing battery materials, both cathode and anode. 

Recently has had success in finalizing and receiving additional DOE funded projects as reported here:

PCT Presenting at DOE Annual Merit Review in Arlington, VA

June 2015 - PCT is presenting the most recent results from our DOE Phase II project. With the completion of our pilot plant, large format Picoshield® battery cells are built and producing excellent data. The results expand on the positive work conducted during the Phase I by proving out the quality, consistency, and throughput achievable using our high throughput system. The Annual Merit Review showcases DOE funded research in the fields of hydrogen, fuel cells, and vehicle technologies.

PCT Awarded NAVY SBIR Phase I for "Long Lasting, Highly Efficient, and Safe Batteries for Sensor Systems"

June 2015 - Pneumaticoat Technologies has been awarded a DOD Phase I SBIR from the Navy to develop improved batteries for sensor systems. This work will focus on improving the overall safety of the battery systems and improving the lifetime performance of critical, battery operated, sensors. Picoshield® coatings will play a crucial role in improving battery performance.
More informsation can be found here: http://www.pneumaticoat.com/news.html 


By incorporating well established manufacturing principles (continuous vs. batch, variable throughput vs. fixed throughput, etc.), PneumatiCoat Technologies has developed an efficient and cheap process for precise coating of powders, flats, and objects. Thanks to our innovative process design and system building know-how, Pneumaticoat Technologies is pushing the boundaries of ALD for manufacturing. With our technology, the days of ALD being too slow and too expensive are over. With high throughput manufacturing capabilities, at inexpensive price points, a great majority of the application technologies that were "put on the shelf" can now be reconsidered as viable commercial products. Combined with the exponential growth in application R&D, PneumatiCoat Technologies' systems are well-poised to help usher in a new wave of customized products to market. (http://www.pneumaticoat.com)

Monday, June 15, 2015

KAUST demonstrate ALD Passivation to stop Degradation of Nanorod Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

Researchers at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) demonstrate an effective strategy to overcome the degradation of MoO3 nanorod anodes in lithium (Li) ion batteries at high-rate cycling, which is achieved by conformal nanoscale surface passivation of the MoO3 nanorods by HfO2 using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The nanoscale HfO2 layer was deposited on the prepared electrodes at 180 °C using atomic layer deposition system (Ultratech/Cambridge Nanotech Savannah).
 
 

Surface Passivation of MoO3 Nanorods by Atomic Layer Deposition toward High Rate Durable Li Ion Battery Anodes

B. Ahmed, Muhammad Shahid, D. H. Nagaraju , D. H. Anjum , Mohamed N. Hedhili, and H. N. Alshareef
Materials Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, 23955−6900, Saudi Arabia
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b03395
Publication Date (Web): June 3, 2015


 
We demonstrate an effective strategy to overcome the degradation of MoO3 nanorod anodes in lithium (Li) ion batteries at high-rate cycling. This is achieved by conformal nanoscale surface passivation of the MoO3 nanorods by HfO2 using atomic layer deposition (ALD). At high current density such as 1500 mA/g, the specific capacity of HfO2-coated MoO3 electrodes is 68% higher than that of bare MoO3 electrodes after 50 charge/discharge cycles. After 50 charge/discharge cycles, HfO2-coated MoO3 electrodes exhibited specific capacity of 657 mAh/g; on the other hand, bare MoO3 showed only 460 mAh/g. Furthermore, we observed that HfO2-coated MoO3 electrodes tend to stabilize faster than bare MoO3 electrodes because nanoscale HfO2 layer prevents structural degradation of MoO3 nanorods. Additionally, the growth temperature of MoO3 nanorods and the effect of HfO2 layer thickness was studied and found to be important parameters for optimum battery performance. The growth temperature defines the microstructural features and HfO2 layer thickness defines the diffusion coefficient of Li-ions through the passivation layer to the active material. Furthermore, ex situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were carried out to explain the capacity retention mechanism after HfO2 coating.

Wednesday, April 8, 2015

An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery [OPEN ACCESS]

Stanford University Professor Hongjie Dai and colleagues have developed the first high-performance aluminum battery that’s fast charging, long lasting and inexpensive. The flexible, non-flammable device produces 2 volts of electricity. The research team was able to generate 5 volts - enough to power a smartphone - using two aluminum batteries and a converter.


An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery [OPEN ACCESS]

Meng-Chang Lin, Ming Gong, Bingan Lu, Yingpeng Wu, Di-Yan Wang, Mingyun Guan, Michael Angell, Changxin Chen, Jiang Yang, Bing-Joe Hwang & Hongjie Dai
Nature (2015), Published online 06 April 2015 doi:10.1038/nature14340

 

The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage1, 2. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity3. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration4, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts; ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1–0.2 volts6 or 1.8–0.8 volts7) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26–85 per cent over 100 cycles)4, 5, 6, 7. Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g–1 and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g–1 (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg–1), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.






Monday, November 17, 2014

University of Maryland present all-in-one nanopore battery array using ALD Ruthenium and V2O5

An all-in-one nanopore battery array

Chanyuan Liu, Eleanor I. Gillette, Xinyi Chen, Alexander J. Pearse, Alexander C. Kozen, Marshall A. Schroeder, Keith E. Gregorczyk, Sang Bok Lee & Gary W. Rubloff

Nature Nanotechnology (2014) doi:10.1038/nnano.2014.247 Published online 10 November 2014 
 
 
a, Schematic of parallel nanopore battery array and cross-section of a single-pore battery. b, Upper panels: SEM images of device (top view), showing AAO pores remaining open after Ru, and Ru and V2O5 ALD

A single nanopore structure that embeds all components of an electrochemical storage device could bring about the ultimate miniaturization in energy storage. Self-alignment of electrodes within each nanopore may enable closer and more controlled spacing between electrodes than in state-of-art batteries. Such an ‘all-in-one’ nanopore battery array would also present an alternative to interdigitated electrode structures that employ complex three-dimensional geometries with greater spatial heterogeneity. Here, we report a battery composed of an array of nanobatteries connected in parallel, each composed of an anode, a cathode and a liquid electrolyte confined within the nanopores of anodic aluminium oxide, as an all-in-one nanosize device. Each nanoelectrode includes an outer Ru nanotube current collector and an inner nanotube of V2O5 storage material, forming a symmetric full nanopore storage cell with anode and cathode separated by an electrolyte region. The V2O5 is prelithiated at one end to serve as the anode, with pristine V2O5 at the other end serving as the cathode, forming a battery that is asymmetrically cycled between 0.2 V and 1.8 V. The capacity retention of this full cell (relative to 1 C values) is 95% at 5 C and 46% at 150 C, with a 1,000-cycle life. From a fundamental point of view, our all-in-one nanopore battery array unveils an electrochemical regime in which ion insertion and surface charge mechanisms for energy storage become indistinguishable, and offers a testbed for studying ion transport limits in dense nanostructured electrode arrays.
 
 
Image: University of Maryland



 
Engineers at the University of Maryland have invented a single tiny structure that includes all the components of a battery that they say could bring about the ultimate miniaturization of energy storage.